The suspects, two US citizens and one former American citizen, provided “zero-click” computer hacking services to the UAE company “that could compromise a device without any action by the target”, the Justice Department said in a statement on Tuesday.
All three previously worked for the US intelligence community or the US military, according to the Justice Department.
“Hackers-for-hire and those who otherwise support such activities in violation of US law should fully expect to be prosecuted for their criminal conduct,” Acting Assistant Attorney General Mark Lesko said in the statement.
“Left unregulated, the proliferation of offensive cyber capabilities undermines privacy and security worldwide.”
The UAE embassy in Washington, DC, did not immediately respond to Al Jazeera’s request for comment on Tuesday evening.
“The FBI will fully investigate individuals and companies that profit from illegal criminal cyber activity,” Bryan Vorndran, assistant director at the FBI’s cyber division, said in the statement.
“This is a clear message to anybody, including former US government employees, who had considered using cyberspace to leverage export-controlled information for the benefit of a foreign government or a foreign commercial company – there is risk, and there will be consequences.”
Baier, a former official at the US National Security Agency (NSA), was the manager of Project Raven, according to a 2019 Reuters investigation that first revealed the existence of the hacking unit.
Baier will pay the largest share of the fine – $750,000, according to the Justice Department – while Adams and Gericke will pay $600,000 and $335,000, respectively. All three have also agreed to give up any US or foreign security clearances and fully cooperate with the FBI.
A joint investigation by several media outlets revealed earlier this year that many phone numbers potentially targeted by Pegasus, a spyware programme made by Israeli private firm NSO Group, were linked to the UAE.
The UAE denied the allegations about using Pegasus at the time, saying that they have “no evidentiary basis”.