Closed-door meetings were held during the Taliban’s first official trip to Europe since returning to power in August. Following the talks, the Taliban delegation left Norway late on Tuesday without making any final statements.
The Taliban is seeking international recognition and release of billions of dollars in Afghan central bank assets frozen by the US following the group’s return to power on August 15, 2021.
The country also found itself cut off from international financial institutions after the group’s return, triggering a banking crisis and fears the war-battered economy will collapse.
Aid also dried up after the US reinstated sanctions in the wake of the Taliban takeover.
Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) Secretary-General Jan Egeland, who took part in the talks, called for the lifting of sanctions, telling AFP: “We cannot save lives unless all the sanctions are lifted.”
Freezing aid is “hurting the same civilians that the NATO countries spent hundreds of billions on defending until August”, he said.
Western diplomats outline the asks
The Taliban delegation, led by Foreign Minister Amir Khan Muttaqi, met senior French foreign ministry official Bertrand Lotholary, Britain’s special envoy Nigel Casey, and members of the Norwegian foreign ministry.
The Western diplomats laid out what they expected from the Taliban during the talks.
European Union special envoy to Afghanistan, Tomas Niklasson, wrote on Twitter that he had “also underlined the need for primary and secondary schools to be accessible for boys and girls throughout the country when the school year starts in March”.
Last week, the Taliban promised all girls will return to school by the end of March.
At the UN in New York, Norwegian Prime Minister Jonas Gahr Store said the talks appeared to have been “serious” and “genuine”.
The Taliban is demanding that $10bn frozen by the US and other Western countries be released, but there is no agreement on that so far.
The group has hailed this week’s talks as a step towards international recognition.
The Taliban foreign minister, speaking on the sidelines of Monday’s talks, said: “Norway providing us this opportunity is an achievement in itself. From these meetings, we are sure of getting support for Afghanistan’s humanitarian, health and education sectors,” he told AP.
The UN has managed to provide some liquidity and allowed the Taliban administration to pay for imports, including electricity.
“The number-one problem now is that Western sanctions are creating a liquidity crisis, which means we cannot get aid funding into the country,” said the NRC’s Egeland.
No country has yet recognised the Taliban, and the international community is waiting to see how the Taliban intend to govern before releasing aid.
Foreign minister Store, speaking to reporters, said “talking to Taliban” and “holding them accountable is the right thing to do” and that the Oslo talks were a “mere framework to address them, communicate messages and hold them accountable.”
But the decision to invite the group – and fly them over in a chartered jet at great expense – has been heavily criticised by some experts, members of the diaspora and Afghan activists.
Store said he knew many were troubled by the meeting but : “The alternative, to leave Afghanistan, one million children, at the danger of starving… that is no option. We have to deal with the world as it is.”
“We are going to place tangible demands that we can follow up on and see if they have been met,” he told Norwegian news agency NTB ahead of his talks with the delegation on Tuesday evening.
The demands were to include the possibility of providing humanitarian aid directly to the Afghan people, according to the NTB.
Norway was also to call for human rights to be respected, in particular those of women and minorities, such as access to education and health services, the right to work, and freedom of movement.
Taliban claims of modernisation
While the group claims to have modernised, women are still largely excluded from public-sector employment and many secondary schools for girls remain closed.
On Sunday, the first day of the three-day talks, the Taliban met with Afghan civil society members, including women activists and journalists, for talks on human rights.
Women’s rights activist Jamila Afghani, who attended Sunday’s talks, told the AFP news agency “it was a positive ice-breaking meeting”.
In Oslo, a Western observer at the talks told AFP “there were some incremental shifts on both sides”.
“But I think we’re going to need more of these meetings before the Taliban and the West find a way of dealing with each other”.
Norway will chair a UN Security Council meeting on Afghanistan in New York on Wednesday.